Judo consists of nage waza, which are throwing techniques and katame waza, which are grappling techniques. You will also hear the phrases tachi waza and ne waza. Tachi waza means standing techniques and ne waza means ground techniques. They are almost interchangeable with nage waza and katame waza.
To advance in Judo, students must learn throws and hold-downs. Judoka 13 years old and up must also learn chokes and armlocks. These are the basics. Judoka will also be expected to know how to block techniques and kaeshi waza, which are counter techniques. Generally, a judoka should be able to counter each of the techniqes appropriate to their belt level. More information is available in the grading section.